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Author Guidelines

The authors are encouraged to decide on which article type best matches their works before writing and formatting. Read the guidelines of the article type of interest for the specific guidance on the structure and formatting requirements. The Author Guidelines serve to inform the authors the instructions on how to format their papers in a more general sense.


Cover letter

Authors are required to submit a cover letter along with the manuscript. The cover letter accompanying the submission should highlight to the editor what makes the research new and important. The cover letter should also explain the reasons why the work is a good fit for the journal and why it will be of interest to the journal’s readership.

In addition, the authors should include the following:

  • All authors listed on the title page have contributed significantly to the work, have read the manuscript, and agree to its submission to the journal.
  • The manuscript or part of it has never been published or considered for publication elsewhere.
  • Disclosures of conflict of interest.
  • A list of not more than four suggested reviewers (and their current affiliations and email addresses) who could review the written work. The suggested reviewers should come from the academic background and must possess the expertise in the field of work as described in the manuscript. Reasons must be provided if the suggested reviewers are not from the academic background.


General formatting requirements of submissions

The submissions made to the journal must fulfill the following requirements:

  • Manuscripts should be written on A4-sized Microsoft Word file with 2.5-cm margin on all edges, and double-spaced. Page numbers and line numbers should be included.
  • Only 12-point Times New Roman is used in manuscripts.
  • The manuscript must be written consistently either in American English or British English. Authors are encouraged to use clear language and simple sentence structure. Authors whose native language is not English are advised to seek linguistic support and make necessary amendments before submission.
  • The expansion of any abbreviation or acronym should be provided at first use, unless it is a standard unit of measurement.


Title page

The title page contains the following elements:

  • Manuscript title: Not more than two lines or less than 150 characters including spaces
  • Running title: Less than 35 characters including spaces
  • Authors: Arranged in the order agreed upon by all authors involved
  • Affiliations
  • Corresponding author: name, address and email information should be provided

Both manuscript title and running title should reflect the work as described in the manuscript and be informative.



An abstract can be either structured or unstructured, depending on the type of article (refer to Section Policies). Abstracts should be clearly written and the use of abbreviations or acronyms that require expansion should be avoided. All the numbers mentioned in the abstract should be found in the manuscript, especially in the Results section.



The Methods section is an important part of Original Research Article and Short Communication. The Methods section must be clearly written in a concise manner, and the information provided must be complete enough to depict the principles of methodology involved and experiments that were performed.

A good Methods section should describe the statistical methods used for data analysis in the study. The name and version of the statistical tools or software should be reported as well.

The journal encourages authors to adhere to the relevant and reliable guidelines while performing certain kinds of experiments (e.g. animal studies and human studies). Authors should obtain ethical clearance or approval from the ethics committee such as institutional review board (IRB) or ethical review board (ERB) of author’s affiliation prior to conducting any animal and human studies. Relevant ethical approval ID should be reported in the Methods section. Proof of ethical approval that contain the ethical approval ID as reported must be provided during submission.



A figure refers to photograph, line drawing, diagram, flow chart, graph or chart. Figures should be saved in one of the following formats: .jpg, .tif, and .png. Authors are advised to submit high-quality images or photographs (300 ppi) in the .jpg or .tif format during the first submission.

Each figure must be accompanied by a brief title, but the legend is optional. Any symbols that are used for indication in the figure must be interpreted in the legend. Both figure title and legend must appear below the figure. All figures must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively throughout, in order of their citation in the manuscript.

All figures must be cited in the main text. The in-text citations of the figures should be put in bold throughout the manuscript. No abbreviation such as 'Fig. 1' is allowed.

A figure can contain multiple panels. Each panel should be labeled with uppercase English alphabets in bold, starting from A, at the top-left corner of the panel. The in-text citation of a figure panel should include the alphabet label with parentheses, e.g. Figure 1(A).

The figures should be placed in the same document (preferably, at the end) of manuscript. Scale bar should be provided for photograph items. Any color figure should be prepared in the CMYK format. RGB colors are not accepted.

The journal reserves the right to reject the inclusion of particular illustrations in the manuscript if the graphics are unreasonably large for the content.



Tables should be generated as editable text but not images. A table generally consists of at least two vertical columns and two horizontal rows. Any divisions of the table should be indicated by horizontal rules.

Each table must be accompanied by a brief title, but the footnote is optional. The table title must appear above the table, while the footnote, if there is any, must appear below the table. All tables must be numbered in Arabic numerals consecutively throughout, in order of their citation in the manuscript. Any units that should appear in the column and row headings of a table must be included in parentheses.

All tables must be cited in the main text. The in-text citations of the tables should be put in bold throughout the manuscript. No abbreviation such as 'Fig. 1' is allowed.

The tables should be placed in the same document (preferably, at the end) of manuscript. The data presented in tables should not be a duplication of results described elsewhere in the article, such as those in the text or figures.



The Acknowledgments section in a paper serve to indicate the individuals, agencies and/or institutions whose contributions merit acknowledgment, rather than authorship. The roles that merit acknowledgment include the acquisition of funding, general supervision of a research group or general administrative support, writing assistance such as technical editing and language editing, as well as proofreading.

The authors should also acknowledge technical assistance involved in the experiments and field trips, as well as assistance in non-technical form such as intellectual discussions.

The authors are also required to declare what financial support they obtained to perform their research. Thus, the authors should acknowledge the funders and mention the roles of the funders in the research as well as the research grant information, e.g. the grant number, in this section.

Conflict of interest

The corresponding author is responsible for disclosing conflicts in the submitted manuscript. In order to help editors and reviewers assess any potential bias or conflicts, the authors should divulge any competing commercial or financial interests in relation to the submitted manuscript. The authors are required to declare any potential conflicts with any financial body or funding agency that might influence the results or interpretation of their manuscripts.

The conflicts that should be declared include connections of the work with device firms, pharmaceutical companies, and other entities such as stock ownership and advisory boards.

Disclosures pertaining ownership of intellectual property that is related to the submitted manuscripts, such as patents ownership and patent application must be reported.


Author contributions

The authorship should be limited to the individuals who have contributed substantially to the work. The authors must indicate their specific contributions to the published work in the Author Contributions section.

Some examples of author contributions are shown in the following:

  • P.R. and Y.S.W. conceived and designed the experiments.
  • Y.S.W. recruited the study participants and collected the data.
  • P.R. performed the experiments (or specific methods).
  • P.R. and A.A.A. analyzed the data.
  • A.A.A. contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.
  • P.R. wrote the paper.
  • Y.S.W. reviewed drafts of the paper.
  • D.E. verified the analytical methods.
  • A.B. conceived the main ideas and review outline.
  • All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


In-text citation

In-text citation numbers should be placed after the relevant part of a sentence, and numbered consecutively in superscript square brackets. For examples:

Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3,4].

This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].

This effect has been widely studied [1–3,7].


Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and are not to be placed in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. These should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of the unpublished works or personal communications, and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis. For example:

This method was recently found to be highly effective (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished).




References are numbered consecutively in the order they are first mentioned. Place each reference number in parentheses throughout the text, tables, and legends. If the same reference is used again, re-use the original number. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

For the reference list, all authors must be stated. Authors being referenced are listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should be numbered (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.) and sequenced according to the order they appear as the in-text citations. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s), followed by year of publication, title of publication, abbreviated journal name in italics, volume number, issue number in parentheses and lastly, page range. If the referred article has more than three authors, list only the first three authors and abbreviate the remaining authors as the italicized ‘et al.’ (meaning "and others"). The DOI, if available, should be included after the page range. Examples of references for different types of publications are as follows:


(a) Journal

Journal article (print) with one to three authors

Younger P, 2004, Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nurs Stand, 19(6): 45–51.


Journal article (print) with more than three authors

Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, et al., 2009, Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol, 105(1): 731–738.


Journal article (online) with one to three authors

Jackson D, Firtko A and Edenborough M, 2007, Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. J Adv Nurs, 60(1): 1–9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04412.x


Journal article (online) with more than three authors

Hargreave M, Jensen A, Nielsen TSS, et al., 2015, Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children — A nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Int J Cancer, 136(8): 1931–1939. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29235


(b) Book

Book with one to three authors

Schneider Z, Whitehead D and Elliott D, 2007, Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia, Marrickville, NSW, 112–130.


Book with more than three authors

Davis M, Charles L, Curry MJ, et al., 2003, Challenging Spatial Norms, Routledge, London, 12–30.


Chapter or article in book

Knowles MS, (eds) 1986, Independent study, in Using Learning Contracts, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 89–96.


(c) Proceedings of meetings and symposiums, conference papers

Chang SS, Liaw L and Ruppenhofer J, (eds) 2000, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12–15, 1999: General session and parasession on loan word phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, 12–13.


(d) Conference proceedings (from electronic database)


Wang T, Cook C and Derby B, 2009, Fabrication of a glucose biosensor by piezoelectric inkjet printing. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2009 (SENSORCOM-M’09), 82–85.


(e) Online document with author names

Este J, Warren C, Connor L, et al., 2008, Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism, Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, viewed May 27, 2009, foj_report_final.pdf


(f) Online document without author name

Developing an argument, n.d., viewed March 30, 2009,


(g) Thesis/Dissertation

Gale L, 2000, The relationship between leadership and employee empowerment for successful total quality management, thesis, Australasian Digital Thesis database, University of Western Sydney, 110–130.


(h) Standards

Standards Australia Online, 2006, Glass in buildings: selection and installation, AS 1288-2006, amended January 31, 2008, SAI Global database, viewed May 19, 2009.


(i) Government report

National Commission of Audit, 1996, Report to the Commonwealth Government, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.


(j) Government report (online)

Department of Health and Ageing, 2008, Ageing and aged care in Australia, viewed November 10, 2008,


(k) No author

Guide to agricultural meteorological practices, 1981, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 10–20.


Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.


Supplementary information

Supplementary information generally includes elaborate descriptions of technical methods, additional figures, tables, and datasets that aid the readers to understand the Methods and Results sections of papers. Elements included in the Supplementary information should be cited in the manuscript.

Supplementary information should be submitted in separate file(s) along with the submission, and will be examined by the reviewers for appropriateness.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors contributing to Gastroenterology & Hepatology Letters agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. With this license, the authors hold the copyright without restrictions and are allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions as long as the Gastroenterology & Hepatology Letters is the original publisher of the articles.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


Author Fees

This journal charges the following author fees.

Article Processing Fee: 0.00 (USD)
If this paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to pay an Article Publication Fee to cover publications costs.

If you do not have funds to pay such fees, you will have an opportunity to waive each fee. We do not want fees to prevent the publication of worthy work.